African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most significant emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. Devastating ASF outbreaks and continuing epidemic in the Caucasus region and Russia (2007 – to date) highlight significance of this disease threat. There is no vaccine for ASF available; however, it is clear that vaccination is possible since protection against homologous reinfection has been definitively demonstrated. Vaccine progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of ASFV strain variation and the viral antigens responsible for protective immunity. A safe and efficacious DIVA (Differentiate Infected from Vaccinated Animal) compatible vaccine would be a critical tool for emergency disease response and control and would reduce the risk for U.S. pork producers. Identification of protective antigens of ASFV is the necessary first step toward eventual vaccine development. Here, we demonstrate that two ASFV proteins, CD2v and C-type lectin, are necessary for protection against ASFV. These viral proteins represent significant protective antigens for ASFV that should be targeted in vaccine design and development.
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